Dominican dictatorship and social thought (2/2)

For Américo Lugo, the Dominican nation does not exist “because it is not aware of the community it constitutes, because its activity has not become widespread enough. Not being a nation, the State that pretends to represent it is not a true State”. “There is no State, even if it is proclaimed, established and organized, the people cannot constitute it, because the Dominican State is the reflection of the changing will of the popular masses, in no way the expression of a public will that does not exist here ”. The nation does not exist “because it does not have the conscience of the community that it constitutes, because its activity has not been sufficiently generalized. Not being a nation, the State that pretends to represent it is not a true State”. “There is no State, even if it is proclaimed, established and organized, the people cannot constitute it, because the Dominican State is the reflection of the changing will of the popular masses, in no way the expression of a public will that does not exist here ”.

Lugo analyzes the Dominican State and finds that “in its current state” it presents two essential features: “false character” and authoritarian character, it is a false State, because: “The Dominican State founded on a people and not on a nation, has not been able to subsist except in conditions of farce or parody of true States, or of already ridiculous political comedy, depending on the circumstances. He believes that: “We have always been a people led by despotism; never a nation governed by a state. There is no possible state where the people have not acquired the consciousness of their national community, that is, of their personal unity. Only by rising to that consciousness does it become a nation and, then (…) the State that it organizes is a true State”.

Lugo oscillates between optimism and the deepest fatalism, acknowledging that it is “true that the political aptitude of peoples tends to assert itself through the darkness and tumult of passions, and perhaps the dawn of a national State is not far off for us.” ”; but he also thinks that “We will never get to constitute a State (…) as long as that political virtuality is not created without which every State is a corpse and every people a portion of humanity fatally destined to fall into the bosom of a true State” .

Lugo believes that the Fathers of the Nation bequeathed to us this sublime nonsense of premature nationality, and they taught us to love it by sealing it with their blood, we must seal it in turn with our own, ascending from dream to reality through a scale of efforts and pains . At the end of the day, peoples only grow by force of blood and tears”. That patriotic love leads him, despite the fact that the Dominican State has a “false character”, he does not propose its abolition, the Dominican State should not be suppressed or closed, on the contrary, he believes “that it must be maintained in its current false character” . In such a state of things: What value does this small Dominican State have, from the point of view of modern public law? None. In our socio-historical context there is no Dominican Nation or State because it was not born viable. “Died suffocated in the crib”.

In the last century, Moscoso Puelloin his famous “Letters to Evelina”, also establishes the thesis that is exposed: “This country does not yet have, and some affirm that it will never have, sufficient civic education to live a life of freedom and honesty. Government is played here. We have no citizens. Two-thirds of the population is made up of completely ignorant peasants, whose mentality has not advanced much since the conquest. The other third part is made up of men of mediocre enlightenment and corrupted, who suffer from the defects bequeathed to us by the scum of the conquerors and other inferior races. There are, therefore, no elements to establish an advanced political regime in accordance with the hour of progress that the world is experiencing. After independence, a campaign has had to be carried out to teach the people, to raise their intellectual level, to homogenize it, from the ethnological point of view. This fundamental campaign is about to be done. A crusade for education, a war without quarter against illiteracy has had to be carried out systematically. But the opposite has been done. The people have been left in the most crass ignorance, without a doubt, with the criminal purpose of exploiting it, of managing it freely.”

For the nation to exist, a historical condition is necessary: ​​”This presupposes a people that is aware of its community and unity: it is an organized and unified people” / “In a certain aspect we are not a people, a true people capable of evolving consciously and progressively. In reality, we are nothing more than a mass without precise contours (…) without fixed directions, without ideals, of a mental inferiority that incapacitates it to rise to a concept of Nation”. There is no nation “here there is no national consciousness. There are no citizens, there are inhabitants. Men who live on a territory consuming what is essential for the preservation of life, without any concept of their true political-social function.

This ideology that undervalues ​​the Dominican people is the theoretical foundation of the predominant despotic authoritarianism in national political history. Our contemporary Dominican political system rests on a profoundly authoritarian political culture, on the culture of corruption and on political continuity. Regarding political continuity, Federico García Godoy stated that “theContinuity is singled out and manifested in a marked tendency to the indefinite monopolization of the functions of supreme power by a tyrant or by an oligarchy. García Godoy distinguishes two types of continuity: “In the management of public affairs, two kinds of continuity can prevail: That of ideas and that of people (…) Personal continuity is always absorbing and tyrannical. To get rid of him it is necessary to cut off his head with the sword of the liberating insurrections”.

Juan Daniel Balcácer maintains that: “Political continuity is characterized by the skilful use of the constitution, the legal system, and almost always rigged electoral processes that allow the current ruler to perpetuate himself in power under a mantle of apparent legitimacy. Due to its anti-democratic nature, continuity usually becomes an illiberal form of government, as happened with the governments headed by Horacio Vásquez (1924-1930) and Joaquín Balaguer (1966-1978 and 1986-1996)”.

The integration of Dominican intellectuals into Creole dictatorships is justified by the ideology that affirms that we are a people without conditions for democratic life.

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Dominican dictatorship and social thought (2/2)